Tag Archives: Atul Gawande

Making a list and checking it twice

In keeping with my recent interest in the Pomodoro Technique, I’ve been on the lookout for other dead simple techniques to make my work life easier. This time, again via a couple of podcasts (the New York Times Book Review and Lucy Kellaway of The Financial Times), I’ve discovered the power of check lists.

In The Checklist Manifesto, Atul Gawande explores how the lowly check list can save lives in the operating room. By having everyone on the operating team follow a straightforward list of pre-conditions and procedures, the World Health Organization was able to increase survival rates among surgical procedures by 47%. The problem, as Dr. Gawande explains it, is one of extreme complexity: there are so many steps required, so many places where one error can cause severe failure, and the human brain simply is ill-equipped to handle such complexity by itself.

I don’t have nearly as complex a job as a surgeon or an airline pilot, and I’m very happy to say that no lives are held in the balance by my ability to execute my tasks without error. But there are a lot of details in my work, and a lot of places where things can go terribly wrong (on a small scale), and though no lives will be lost, there’s a good chance that my day (or the day of my customer) will be ruined by failure. I speak from bitter experience of overlooking a simple detail and seeing things spin badly out of control.

As a test of the manifesto’s thesis, I put together a check list for my application build process. It’s a terribly manual process, with lots of chances to make a bad build. Yes, it should be done on a build server directly from the source repository (at my last job, we used Hudson: I highly recommend it to anyone looking for a clean, simple, flexible build infrastructure), but as a contractor I’m a guest here and can’t really demand that kind of change. And yes, I could make things easier for myself with an ANT script, but I could also make things easier for myself with DTDs for my XML, more consistent use of jQuery, and some Eclipse plugins for my configuration system, but somehow I have to find time to implement features too; we must choose our battles, and I’m willing to defer this one. We’re running the development of this project on an aggressively iterative time line, so in the midst of development I may have one or more daily builds to release to the customer for review, and monthly deployments to production. That’s a lot of opportunity to miss a step and waste several hours of time.

Originally, inspired by the Pomodoro Technique’s paper system, I thought I’d print out a check list for each deployment. Having a physical object to mark the steps on seemed like a good way to ensure focus. But one of the hallmarks of a good check list is its flexibility and adaptability: my first list was obsolete after the second time I used it.

I looked at a few on-line tools–Toodledo and Remember the Milk seemed like the hot properties in to-do lists–but they didn’t quite fit the bill. The thing that makes a check list different from a to-do list is that it lives in multiple instances: the same steps repeated over and over, rather than tasks that are assigned and executed once. One of my requirements was that my check list be cloneable, while at the same time offering flexibility in adding and removing steps as the process changed.

I finally ended up at Checkvist, which met all my needs:

  1. I can create a master check list and copy it any number of times as needed
  2. I can add and remove steps on the master template, and can also modify the working copies
  3. Tasks can be arranged, rearranged, and put into hierarchies
  4. The interface is quick, clean, and simple, and a joy to use
  5. It’s free (though there is a paid version, which supports encryption and secure sharing of lists)

I have a master build check list that I’ve used for 10 builds so far; and so far, none of my builds have failed. The list is largely obvious, possibly even pedantic, but there’s a tale of woe behind almost every line: a build that failed because the application.xml file was corrupt, or because an external properties file was for the wrong environment, or because a network hiccup caused the compiled application to copy incorrectly to the deployment server. Most of the steps take only a few seconds to perform, but can save hours of effort to correct.

Dr. Gawande found that surgeons were initially resistant to using a check list. They consider themselves (perhaps rightly) above such things: they are as much artists as they are technicians, and going through a check list seems anathema to their skills and knowledge. And I had a little resistance to overcome myself in giving it a try; I think of myself less as a software engineer than a software sculptor, shaping the formless bits and bytes of data and code into a beautiful machine. But after giving the check list a chance, I found that it actually freed me up to think more about the creative parts of my work and less about the mundane but critical details. The benefits have included:

  1. More consistent success in getting a successful build released.
  2. Less anxiety: I’m both absent-minded and anxious, the sort of person who returns home after getting half way to work to make sure I really did unplug the coffee maker and lock the doors. The check list gives me confirmation that I did in fact take care of the details.
  3. Less time thinking about the details: I don’t have to remember where in the configuration settings I have pieces to switch for deployments to dev vs. cert, or which files point to service endpoints. I’ve spelled out the specifics in the check list, and I update the check list when the details change.
  4. Better development practices overall: I’ve been using the Apache Commons Configuration API to control the application’s setup, and the check list encourages me to put environment-specific information into consistent spots in the application. I am also far less tempted to hard-code things might have to change at deployment if I know that they need to go into the check list; externalization is good for maintainability, and also good for making a speedy list.
  5. A concrete log of my work: Checkvist lets me archive my check lists after I’ve finished with them, so I can go back over them and verify that each step was completed, and also see how the process has changed over time.
  6. A better understanding of the process: when I do get around to using ANT to simplify things, I’ll have a template to work from; steps that could benefit from improvement stand out in the list, and can be addressed before they become entrenched.

Using a check list for this particular set of tasks has encouraged me to identify other things that can benefit from this discipline. Adding configurable components to the application, branching the project in the repository, organizing requirements for future releases: all repeatable processes with the possibility of failure if a detail is missed. And all candidates for freeing up my brain to think of more interesting tings while the check list serves as my memory.